This is not so much a book review – since the book in question hardly needs promotion or an introduction – as it is a brief guide to the various translations and editions of Calvin's Institutes that are available.
John Calvin published five different Latin editions of his Institutes, expanding on it with each new edition. The 1536 edition was just 6 chapters long, and the addition of 17 shorter chapters in 1539 doubled the book’s size. Four more chapters were added in 1543, and then only minor changes made in 1550. But the final, 1559 version was fully 80% larger than its predecessor. In addition to these Latin editions, Calvin also created French versions that, while very similar, were not strict translations – they taught the same doctrine, in the same order, but sometimes said things in different ways.
It is the final Latin 1559 version that most translations are based on, including the two best-known English-language translations: the 1845 Henry Beveridge, and the 1960 Ford Lewis Battles (edited by John T. McNeill), translations.
One advantage of the Henry Beveridge edition is that the copyright has expired on this translation, so it is readily available online for free (there is also a harder to find 1813 translation by John Allen also available online for free – Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3 – as well as in print).
Cheap print and e-book copies are also available, but this is where you have to be wary, as some have crisp new type and a beautiful layout, and others look like they are copies of copies of the original 1800s publication, with dark text cramming every nook and cranny of the page. If you plan to be reading the Institutes front to back – all 1,700 some pages of it – then a nice airy, legible layout is important. So buyer beware – be sure that you can take a look at the inside of whatever edition you are buying.
The Ford Lewis Battles translation came a hundred years later, so as you might imagine, the language is somewhat more current. Another strength of this edition are the many helpful, explanatory notes that the editor, John T. McNeill, includes on the bottom of most every page.
In addition to being the most modern translation (by Robert White and published by the Banner of Truth) this edition's main feature is one that will be regarded as a strength by some and a weakness by others – it is based on the much smaller 1541 French edition. It clocks in at just 920 pages, instead of the more than 1,700 pages of the final 1559 version. So, this would be the best one for those interested in checking out the Institutes but who would appreciate an abridgment...in this case, done by the author himself!
While it might seem a trivial thing, I really can't emphasize enough the importance of buying an edition with an inviting layout. You're going to be investing a lot of time with this book, whatever edition you buy, and if you get one with dense text, and a hard to read font, it will wear on you. And on the point, the White edition is beautiful, the Battles/McNeill seems good though not great, and the various editions of the Beveridge run the gamut from beautiful to atrocious.
Back in 2009, in celebration of John Calvin's 500th birthday, Pastor Douglas Wilson spent the year blogging through the 1559 edition, offering a daily set of questions to aid in the study of each passage. For those that are interested, you can find those blog posts here. He then turned these posts into a study guide, which differs from the blog posts in one important way. Whereas the blog posts have questions for each day, the study guide also includes brief answers to each question.
Friday, December 28, 2018
Friday, December 14, 2018
1993 (originally 1910) / 383 pages
This is not a new book, but it is a new topic for me, and it's a really good look at a particularly turbulent time in Dutch history.
One of the Williams in the House of Orange is (justly) famous in Dutch history for rescuing the Netherlands from the tyranny of Spain, but this novel depicts the rise of William III, who ultimately became more famous in English history as the one who liberated that country from the domination of the Catholic King James II. In this first volume of the William and Mary Trilogy, Marjorie Bowen takes to the very beginning of William's reign, when the Stadtholders (kings) of the Netherlands have been swept out of power by the enthusiasm for republican rule, and the country is ruled by John de Witt, the Grand Pensionary (the Dutch equivalent of a Prime Minister).
What makes the novel so compelling, in spite of what some reviewers on goodreads.com feel is overdescription, is the fact that for much of the novel, Prince William is seen through others' eyes. John de Witt has taken charge of William's education, seeking to compensate him for his family's fall from grace, as well as to make him fit for a role in service to (rather than in charge of) the States General (the republican government).
Many people are less optimistic that Willem will be willing to take on anything less than full rule of the country. One man, in particular, Florent Van Mander (a secretary of John de Witt), who seeks nothing but his own advantage, at first schemes with the French to help William back into the Stadtholdership. As the story continues, Van Mander's scheming is displaced by his sincere desire to follow the Prince wherever he bids. Meanwhile, we as readers also eagerly follow William's fortunes to find out if and how he will gain power, and whether he is willing to betray his country to get it.
William is not a modest man, but it becomes very clear that in spite of his faults, he can be used by God to defend and promote the Reformed faith against the designs of the Catholic French King Louis XIV, who is willing to use any means - including intrigue, assassination, and outright conquest - to extend his power over France's neighbours. Whether William is willing and/or able to do so is tested by the invasion (over both land and sea) of the Netherlands by the French army and French and English navies. The ensuing war shows the skill and courage of many in the Dutch armed forces, including Ruard de Witt, John de Witt's brother.
Which brings us back to the De Witts, and Florent Van Mander. Bowen does not flinch away from the fact that anyone's rise to power brings others down, and as in Charles Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities, this story also shows the fearsome and chaotic power of the mob. William neither courts nor discourages the rabble who call for his restoration as Stadtholder, and so, as we may wonder when we watch Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, the questions arise as to whether you can trust anyone whom the people love quite so much, and whether you can trust the people themselves.
If you want to maintain your grasp of Dutch history, you can get Marjorie Bowen's book for free as an e-book or an online free read (also with links to print versions).